# What Does Limits Of Agreement Mean

Indeed, the mean of the absolute value of a stan­dard nor­mal dis­tri­b­u­tion is root(2/pi) and the mean of the absolute value of a nor­mal dis­tri­b­u­tion with mean is zero and the stan­dard devi­a­tion sigma root (2/pi) sigma. The lim­i­ta­tions of the agree­ment include both sys­tem­atic (bias) and ran­dom (accu­racy) errors and pro­vide a use­ful mea­sure for com­par­ing likely dif­fer­ences between indi­vid­ual out­comes mea­sured using two meth­ods. If one of the meth­ods is a ref­er­ence method, com­pli­ance lim­its can be used as a mea­sure of the total error of a mea­sure­ment method (Krouwer, 2002). The sim­ple method of 95% match­ing lim­its is based on the assump­tion that the mean and stan­dard devi­a­tion of the dif­fer­ences are con­stant, i.e. they do not depend on the size of the mea­sure­ment. In our orig­i­nal work, we described the com­mon sit­u­a­tion where the stan­dard devi­a­tion is pro­por­tional to size and described a method that uses a log­a­rith­mic trans­for­ma­tion of the data. In our 1999 review (Bland and Alt­man, 1999), we described a method for deal­ing with any rela­tion­ship between the mean and SD of dif­fer­ences and the size of the mea­sure. (That was Doug Altman‘s idea, I can‘t take a loan.) A major appli­ca­tion of the Bland-Altman dia­gram is to com­pare two clin­i­cal mea­sures, each of which gave rise to an error in their mea­sure­ments. [5] It can also be used to com­pare a new tech­nique or method of mea­sure­ment to a gold stan­dard, as even a gold stan­dard does not imply – and should not – be error-free. [4] See Analysis-it, Med­Calc, NCSS, Graph­Pad Prism, R or Stats­Di­rect for soft­ware that pro­vides Bland-Altman dia­grams. We can record these lim­its on the dif­fer­ence from the aver­age graph: more pre­cisely, the method gives an esti­mate of the inter­val in which some of the dif­fer­ences between the mea­sure­ments are located. It is used when you want to try a new mea­sure­ment tech­nique or method that has advan­tages over the one cur­rently in use. It could be eas­ier to use or less expensive.

How­ever, incon­clu­sive data on its reli­a­bil­ity may also be avail­able. Com­pli­ance lim­its esti­mate the inter­val at which some of the dif­fer­ences between the mea­sures are located. A Bland-Altman dia­gram (dif­fer­en­tial dia­gram) in ana­lyt­i­cal chem­istry or bio­med­i­cine is a data trac­ing method used to ana­lyze the cor­re­spon­dence between two dif­fer­ent ass. It is iden­ti­cal to a Tukey mean dif­fer­ence table,[1] the name by which it is known in other fields, but was pop­u­lar­ized in J.‘s med­ical statistics. .